We may think that stars generally only change and evolve on timescales too great to observe within human lifetimes, but astronomers have discovered that many stars exhibit some variability in luminosity, size, or another physical property within relatively short time frames. Unsurprisingly, they refer to stars that vary in brightness over time — since brightness is the main property of stars that we are able to observe — as variable stars (or varstars, sometimes variables, as we like to call them). Throughout this post, please be aware of the distinction between brightness, how much light we observe coming from a star, and luminosity, the amount of light the star produces.
Any star that shows any kind of variations in brightness can be a varstar; the changes don’t have to be periodic (though many types of varstars do show some kind of periodicity). With such a broad definition, there is obviously a plethora of varstar types, so astronomers must classify them — we’ll give a general overview now and explain some of the specific types of varstars in greater detail in the weeks to come.
First of all, there are two main kinds of varstars, which distinguish the general cause of the star’s variability. Intrinsic variable stars vary in brightness because of changes within the star that cause it to vary in luminosity. Extrinsic variable stars, on the other hand, do not vary in luminosity but vary in brightness because something other than the star itself changes the amount of light that we receive from it.
Intrinsic varstars are generally split into three main classes — pulsating, eruptive, and cataclysmic — with some catalogs recognizing a fourth class of x-ray variables. Pulsating variable stars expand and contract, causing variations in brightness and size, among other properties. They are further subdivided into radial pulsating varstars, where the entire star undergoes these periodic pulsations at the same time, or non-radial pulsating varstars, where parts of the star expand and contract differently. Most pulsating varstars are post-Main Sequence stars located above the Main Sequence in an area known as the instability strip, which is named for the fact that stars located there are unstable and undergo pulsations. Eruptive variable stars vary in brightness because of violent flare-ups or other stellar processes, usually involving matter either being lost from the star or being gained by it. Cataclysmic variable stars (sometimes also known as explosive variables) are somewhat like eruptive variables, since they also undergo occasional outbursts, but in cataclysmic varstars the outbursts are caused by thermonuclear processes. Yes, supernovae — and regular novae — are considered to be cataclysmic variables! Finally, x-ray variables are defined as optical variables closely associated (often in a binary system) with a strong, variable source of x-ray radiation.
Extrinsic varstars are classified as either eclipsing or rotating. Eclipsing variable stars are part of multiple-star systems that are aligned just right so that as we observe from Earth, one star passes in front of the other as the system orbits. When this happens, the total brightness of the system is reduced, causing a noticeable dip in the light curve; we also see a smaller dip in brightness at the secondary eclipse (when the stars’ positions are switched and the other one is eclipsed). Rotating variable stars either have uneven surface brightness due to sunspots or magnetic fields, or are non-spherical in shape. Therefore, as the star rotates, we receive different amounts of light from it depending on what areas are visible.
Of course, it is worth noting that there are varstars that cannot be definitely classified. This is because either they haven’t been studied closely enough to determine their type, or because they are oddball varstars that don’t fit nicely into any classification that astronomers have discovered.
The fact that we’ve devoted a whole series of posts to varstars should tell you that they’re pretty important to astronomy, but how exactly are they important? Eclipsing varstars are by necessity part of a binary system, and studying these stars can tell us more about the system or about binaries in general. Some types of varstars, such as Cepheids, can be used as “standard candles” to determine distances to individual stars, clusters, or even galaxies. Pulsating varstars in the instability strip can tell us more about stages of post-Main Sequence stellar evolution. And of course those wonderful detonating varstars, novae and supernovae, can tell us about the end stages of stellar life.
TL;DR — Variable stars are, well, stars that vary in brightness. They can be divided into intrinsic or extrinsic varstars; intrinsic varstars are then classified as pulsating, eruptive, cataclysmic, or x-ray variables, while extrinsic varstars are subdivided into eclipsing and rotating variables. Varstars are very important to astronomy for a multitude of reasons, including learning about the stages of stellar evolution and determining distances. Even the Sun is a varstar, making it a topic that is certainly close to home.
Sources and links for further reading:
- Carroll & Ostlie, An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics, 2nd edition, p. 483-491